The now capital of Rajasthan, Jaipur was built in 1727 AD by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II. It is from his name that the city extracts its name. Jaipur happens to be the first planned city of India. Maharaja Jai Singh, who was only 11 years old, came into power after the demise of his father Maharaja Bishan Singh. Kachwaha Rajputs, who came into power in 12th century, are said to be Jai Singh's ancestors. Their rivalry with Sisodia Rajputs, rulers of Mewar, helped them in their alliance with Mughals. Mughals too helped the Kachwaha Rajputs against Sisodia Rajputs, resulting in Kachwahas attaining a reputed place in Rajasthan. They ruled the kingdoms of Mewar (Udaipur) and Marwar (Jodhpur) from the glorious Amber Fort. Jai Singh supported Aurangzeb's son Azam Shah in the battle of succession, which created unrest among people. But Azam Shah lost this bid to throne to his brother Bahadur Shah.
Azam Shah then demanded the removal of Jai Singh from the throne. With the ally of Mughals, Jai Singh brought himself back to power. The kingdom flourished in his reign and Jai Singh built his capital around Amber Fort and Jaipur was eventually developed as India's first ever planned city by chief architect from Bengal, Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya. Vidhyadhar Bhattacharya, following the principles of Shilpa Shastra (the science of Indian architecture), and referencing the ancient Indian knowledge on astronomy, further developed and discussed the plan with Jai Singh. It is said that the foundation of the city was laid down on 18th November 1727 by Jai Singh himself. It took minutely plans strategies and 4 years for the city's major places—the roads, the square, palaces and the fortification of the boundaries—to come to form.